Linux yum命令

Linux yum命令:YUM管理器。

Linux yum命令 功能描述

使用yum命令可以安装、更新、删除、显示软件包和软件包组。yum可以自动进行系统更新,基于软件仓库的元数据分析,解决软件包依赖性关系。

Linux yum命令 语法

yum [选项] [命令]

命令中各选项的含义如表所示。

yum命令选项含义

yum命令的命令部分描述如表所示。



yum命令的命令部分描述

要使用yum命令,必须事先配置好yum软件仓库。

Linux yum命令 示例

显示yum命令帮助信息

[root@rhel ~]# yum help

需要手工确认安装bind软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum install bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
===========================================================================Package           Arch           Version           Repository           Size
===========================================================================
Installing:
 bind          x86_64          32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6          rhel6          4.0 M
Transaction Summary
===========================================================================
Install   1 Package(s)
Total download size: 4.0 M
Installed size: 7.2 M
Is this ok[y/N]: y              //输入y确认安装软件包
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
 Installing:32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
  Verifying :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
 Installed:
  bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
 Complete

无需确认直接安装bind软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum -y install bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
===========================================================================
Package            Arch            Version            Repository            Size
===========================================================================
Installing:
 bind          x86_64          32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6          rhel6          4.0 M
Transaction Summary
===========================================================================
Install   1 Package(s)
Total download size: 4.0 M
Installed size: 7.2 M
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
 Installing:32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                   1/1
 Verifying :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
Installed:
 bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
Complete!

安装以bin开头的软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum -y install bin*

重新安装bind软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum reinstall bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Reinstall Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6 will be reinstalled
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
===========================================================================
Package            Arch            Version            Repository            Size
===========================================================================
Reinstalling:
 bind          x86_64          32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6          rhel6          4.0 M
Transaction Summary
===========================================================================
Reinstall  1 Package(s)
Total download size: 4.0 M
Installed size: 7.2 M
Is this ok[y/N]: y          //输入y确认重新安装软件包
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
 Installing:32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                   1/1
 Verifying :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
Installed:
 bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
Complete!

显示bind软件包的详细信息



[root@rhel ~]# yum info bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Installed Packages
Name   : bind
Arch   : x86_64
Epoch   :32
Version  :9.8.2
Release  :0.17.rc1.el6
Size   :7.2 M
Repo   : installed
From repo : rhel6
Summary  : The Berkeley Internet Name Domain(BIND)DNS(Domain Name System)server
URL    : http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/
License  : ISC
Description : BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is an implementation of the DNS
      : (Domain Name System) protocols. BIND includes a DNS server (named),
      : which resolves host names to IP addresses; a resolver library
      : (routines for applications to use when interfacing with DNS); and
      : tools for verifying that the DNS server is operating properly.

显示所有已经安裝的软件包信息

[root@rhel ~]# yum info installed

列出bind软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum list bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Installed Packages
bind.x86_64           32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6           @rhel6

列出软件仓库中所有可以安装的软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum list available
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Available Packages
389-ds-base.x86_64          1.2.11.15-11.el6       rhel6
389-ds-base-libs.i686         1.2.11.15-11.el6       rhel6
389-ds-base-libs.x86_64        1.2.11.15-11.el6       rhel6
DeviceKit-power.i686          014-3.el6           rhel6
ElectricFence.i686          2.2.2-28.el6           rhel6
ElectricFence.x86_64          2.2.2-28.el6          rhel6
GConf2.i686             2.28.0-6.el6             rhel6
GConf2-devel.i686           2.28.0-6.el6          rhel6
GConf2-devel.x86_64          2.28.0-6.el6         rhel6
ImageMagick.i686           6.5.4.7-6.el6_2        rhel6
ImageMagick.x86_64          6.5.4.7-6.el6_2       rhel6
ImageMagick-c++.x86_64         6.5.4.7-6.el6_2     rhel6
MySQL-python.x86_64          1.2.3-0.3.c1.1.el6    rhel6
NetworkManager-glib.i686        1:0.8.1-43.el6       rhel6
........................(省略)

列出bind软件包的依赖关系

[root@rhel ~]# yum deplist bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Finding dependencies:
package: bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
 dependency: liblwres.so.80()(64bit)
  provider: bind-libs.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
 dependency: grep
  provider: grep.x86_64 2.6.3-3.el6
 dependency: libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.4)(64bit)
  provider: glibc.x86_64 2.12-1.107.el6
 dependency: libz.so.1()(64bit)
  provider: zlib.x86_64 1.2.3-29.el6
 dependency: rtld(GNU_HASH)
  provider: glibc.i686 2.12-1.107.el6
  provider: glibc.x86_64 2.12-1.107.el6
 dependency: portreserve
  provider: portreserve.x86_64 0.0.4-9.el6
 dependency: libpthread.so.0()(64bit)
  provider: glibc.x86_64 2.12-1.107.el6
 dependency: shadow-utils
  provider: shadow-utils.x86_64 2:4.1.4.2-13.el6
 dependency: libgssapi_krb5.so.2()(64bit)
  provider: krb5-libs.x86_64 1.10.3-10.el6
 dependency: libpthread.so.0(GLIBC_2.2.5)(64bit)
  provider: glibc.x86_64 2.12-1.107.el6
........................(省略)

显示软件仓库的配置

[root@rhel ~]# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
repo id           repo name                                   status
rhel-source        Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6Server-x86_64-Source      0
rhel-source-beta    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6Server Beta-x86_64-Source   0
rhel6            Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6                        3,720
repolist: 3,720

查看/etc/named.conf文件是属于哪个软件包的

[root@rhel ~]# yum provides /etc/named.conf
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64: The Berkeley Internet Name Domain(BIND)DNS(Domain Name System)server
Repo   : rhel6
Matched from:
Filename  : /etc/named.conf
32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64: The Berkeley Internet Name Domain(BIND)DNS(Domain Name System)server
Repo   : installed
Matched from:
Other   : Provides-match: /etc/named.conf

删除bind软件包



[root@rhel ~]# yum remove bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Remove Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6 will be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
===========================================================================
Package            Arch            Version            Repository            Size
===========================================================================
Removing:
 bind          x86_64          32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6          @rhel6          7.2 M
Transaction Summary
===========================================================================
Remove   1 Package(s)
Installed size: 7.2 M
Is this ok[y/N]: y              //输入y确认删除软件包
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
 Erasing  :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
 Verifying :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
Removed:
 bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
Complete!

从系统中删除bind软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum erase bind
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Remove Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6 will be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
===========================================================================
Package            Arch            Version            Repository            Size
===================================================================Removing:
 bind          x86_64          32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6          @rhel6          7.2 M
Transaction Summary
=====================================================Remove   1 Package(s)
Installed size: 7.2 M
Is this ok[y/N]: y           //输入y确认移除软件包
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
 Erasing  :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
 Verifying :32:bind-9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6.x86_64                  1/1
Removed:
 bind.x86_64 32:9.8.2-0.17.rc1.el6
Complete!

查找httpd软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum search httpd
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
================================N/S Matched: httpd
==============================
httpd.x86_64 : Apache HTTP Server
httpd-devel.i686 : Development interfaces for the Apache HTTP server
httpd-devel.x86_64 : Development interfaces for the Apache HTTP server
httpd-manual.noarch : Documentation for the Apache HTTP server
httpd-tools.x86_64 : Tools for use with the Apache HTTP Server
mod_dav_svn.x86_64 : Apache httpd module for Subversion server
mod_dnssd.x86_64 : An Apache HTTPD module which adds Zeroconf support
Name and summary matches only, use ''search all'' for everything.

显示机器或可用仓库的版本



[root@rhel ~]# yum version
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Installed:6Server/x86_64          1120:e56d399d032780703b79e6923413c7f628ac5ebe
Group-Installed: yum             14:14e1c81c7a24520a8fcd1f7bae7472c9ebadd96d
version

运行交互式的yum shell

[root@rhel ~]# yum shell
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Setting up Yum Shell
>

生成源数据缓存

[root@rhel ~]# yum makecache
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
rhel-source                              |2.5 kB  00:00
rhel-source/filelists_db                      |1.2 MB  00:04
rhel-source/primary_db                      |1.4 MB  00:04
rhel-source/other_db                       |2.0 MB  00:05
rhel-source-beta                           |1.3 kB  00:00
rhel-source-beta/filelists                     | 205 B  00:00
rhel-source-beta/other                      | 201 B  00:00
rhel6                                  |2.9 kB  00:00...
rhel6/filelists_db                          |3.8 MB  00:00...
rhel6/other_db                           |1.6 MB  00:00...
Metadata Cache Created

确定哪个软件包提供了给定的依赖

[root@rhel ~]# yum resolvedep bind

检查可更新的软件包

[root@rhel ~]# yum check-update
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
rhel-source                              |2.5 kB  00:00
rhel-source/primary_db                     |1.4 MB  00:03
rhel-source-beta                           |1.3 kB  00:00
rhel-source-beta/primary                     | 214 B  00:00
rhel6                                   |2.9 kB  00:00...
rhel6/primary_db                          |3.1 MB  00:01...

显示yum使用历史

[root@rhel ~]# yum history
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
ID  |Login user       |Date and time  |Action(s)   |Altered
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  11|root<root>      |2013-08-19 02:41|Erase    |  1
  10|root<root>      |2013-08-19 02:41|Install   |  1
  9|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:34|Erase    |  1
  8|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:19|Reinstall   |  1
  7|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:18|Install   |  1
  6|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:18|Erase    |  3 EE
  5|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:17|Install   |  4
  4|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:16|Install   |  1
  3|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:16|Erase    |  1
  2|root<root>       |2013-08-19 02:11|Install   |  1 <
  1|System<unset>     |2013-08-18 21:27|Install   |1116>
history list

清除缓存目录下的软件包和旧的头文件

root@rhel ~]# ls /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6Server/rhel6
bead8b86e8dc93a754a45198d7758f9ea65b9afb7548a0b0d9afdf7c9decad27-primary.sqlite
cachecookie packages repomd.xml
//查看yum缓存目录/var/cache/yum/x86_64/6Server/rhel6的内容
[root@rhel ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Cleaning repos: rhel6
Cleaning up Everything
[root@rhel ~]# ls /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6Server/rhel6
packages
//再次查看/var/cache/yum/x86_64/6Server/rhel6目录,很多缓存数据已经没有了
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